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Additional resources for Advances in Child Development and Behavior, Vol. 6
As one approximation of uncertainty in information terms, the choice was between a high incentive with zero uncertainty and no information and a mixed bag of incentive values in which the risk was defined by two bits of information or uncertainty value. This within-subjects variable for all children was combined with six between-subjects variables. In four experimental conditions, opportunity for opening the packages to see contents and reduce uncertainty was given after each trial ( E l ) , each 10 trials (ElO), each 20 trials (E20), and at the end of all 40 trials (E40).
These stimulus properties have been termed “collative” by Berlyne (1960), and operational definitions have taken various forms. One definition derived from information theory deals with uncertainty as potential information, and amount of information, as the amount of uncertainty reduced (Garner, 1962). In a framework less formal than information theory, Hunt (1965) has postulated uncertainty reduction as intrinsic motivation of cognitive origin in contrast to primary or secondary drives he called extrinsic motivation of appetitive origin.
A 2 X 3 between-subjects design included all the conditions previously tested in smaller combinations in the Shepp and Siegel laboratories. Incentive contrast provided two independent levels: (a) rewards equal, the corn versus the Chiclet, and (b) rewards unequal, the bubble gum versus the bean. Interacting with the two incentive contrast levels were three reward cue conditions: (a) multiple reward cues correlated with the irrelevant position dimension, (b) multiple reward cues uncorrelated with position, and (c) single reward cues employing each of the four incentives separately Sam L.