By Stefan Teufel

Separation of scales performs a basic function within the realizing of the dynamical behaviour of complicated platforms in physics and different common sciences. A trendy instance is the Born-Oppenheimer approximation in molecular dynamics. This publication specializes in a up to date method of adiabatic perturbation conception, which emphasizes the function of powerful equations of movement and the separation of the adiabatic restrict from the semiclassical restrict. an in depth creation supplies an outline of the topic and makes the later chapters available additionally to readers much less conversant in the fabric. even if the final mathematical conception in accordance with pseudodifferential calculus is gifted intimately, there's an emphasis on concrete and correct examples from physics. functions diversity from molecular dynamics to the dynamics of electrons in a crystal and from the quantum mechanics of in part constrained platforms to Dirac debris and nonrelativistic QED.

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On the choice of an orthonormal basis in P+ (q(t), p(t))C4 . Such a choice has to be motivated on physical grounds and a natural choice are the eigenvectors of the z-component of the “mean-spin” operator S(q, p), which commutes with √ HD (q, p), cf. [FoWo, Sp1 ]. Let e(v) = v 2 + m2 , v ∈ R3 , and e(v) + m 0 1 0 , ψ−z (v) = 1 e(v) + m , ψ+z (v) = vz vx − ivy N (v) N (v) vx + ivy −vz where the normalization is given through N (v) = 2e(v)(e(v) + m). Then HD (q, p) ψ±z p − A(q ) = E+ (q, p) ψ±z p − A(q) and Sz (q, p) ψ±z p − A(q) = ± 12 ψ±z p − A(q) .

For ψ ∈ D, ψ He0 = He0 ψ + ψ . 9. 28) also the spin of the electrons and relativistic corrections. ♦ 2 2 Let A ∈ Cb1 (Rd , Rd ). Then ε2 − i∇x + A(x) is self-adjoint on H 2 (Rd ), the second Sobolev space, since −i∇x is inﬁnitesimally operator bounded with respect to −∆x . 29) is self-adjoint on D(H ε ) = H 2 (Rd ) ⊗ He ∩ D(He ). 2 we assumed for simplicity that the relevant part of the spectrum σ∗ (x) of the ﬁbered Hamiltonian is separated by a gap for x in all of Rd . However, in applications like in the present case, He (x) has isolated energy bands, in general, only locally in the conﬁguration space of the nuclei, cf.

Then there exists a unitary propagator U ε , cf. 1, such that for odinger equation t, t0 ∈ J and ψ0 ∈ D a solution to the time-dependent Schr¨ iε d ψ(t) = H(t) ψ(t) , dt ψ(t0 ) = ψ0 . is given through ψ(t) = U ε (t, t0 )ψ0 . 1 is an immediate consequence of the general result on contraction semigroups, cf. 70 in [ReSi2 ]. The ﬁrst proof of the time-adiabatic theorem is due to Born and Fock [BoFo] and important advances were achieved by Kato [Ka2 ], Garrido [Ga] and Nenciu [Nen4 ]. 1. We give a formulation and a proof of the time-adiabatic theorem, which is maybe not the most concise one, but is best suited for a generalization to the space-adiabatic setting.