By Hartmut Janocha
Adaptronics is the time period encompassing technical fields that experience turn into recognized across the world less than the names "smart materials", "intelligent structures", and "smart structures". Adaptronics contributes to the optimisation of structures and items. It bridges the space among fabric and system/product and accommodates the quest for multi-functional fabrics and parts and their integration in structures or constructions. The authors of this ebook have taken at the activity of showing the present state-of-the-art during this box. The process parts actuators, sensors and controllers, technical basics, fabrics layout principles and sensible options are defined. chosen pattern functions also are represented and present improvement tendencies are proven.
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Extra info for Adaptronics and Smart Structures: Basics, Materials, Design, and Applications
If the low temperature states are polarized, domain wall movements cause the polar vector to rotate in the region swept by the moving domain wall. This situation is illustrated in Fig. 5 for a ferroelectric twin. Under an upward electric ﬁeld, the domain wall moves to the left. At the same time, the whole region II in the right hand side of the wall moves up relative to region I. The dipoles in region II are switched to more favorable positions by the external ﬁeld and the global shape change caused by the domain wall movement could be substantial as shown in the ﬁgure.
In a solid-state manner. Already, solid-state actuation has found niche application in the aerospace industry. The aero-servo-elastic control of vibrations and ﬂutter with solid-state actuated ﬂaps, tabs, vanes, etc. for helicopter rotor blades and aircraft wings is currently being experimented on. The design with induced-strain actuators must take into consideration their speciﬁc characteristics. Induced-strain actuators can develop large forces but only a small ﬁnite stroke that must be judiciously used to achieve the design goals.
There are many natural functional materials that have been widely used in our daily life. Many composite materials with enhanced functional properties have also been created so that the amount of functional material categories is growing fast. As most of the control systems are driven electronically, ferroelectric materials are naturally one of the best functional materials for adaptronics applications. In this chapter, we will use ferroelectric materials as examples to explain some of the fundamental physics that produce these marvellous functional properties.