Action et Réaction. Vie et Aventures d'un couple by Jean Starobinski

By Jean Starobinski

Pourquoi dans l. a. vie quotidienne, affirme-t-on qu’une scenario intolérable appelle une réaction ? remark les biologistes en sont-ils venus à penser les rapports du vivant et du milieu en termes d’interaction ? Pour quelle raison l. a. psychiatrie a-t-elle adopté, il y a un siècle, l. a. catégorie des affections réactionnelles ? Pourquoi le idea d’abréaction fut-il inventé puis abandonné par l. a. première psychanalyse ? Que veut-on faire entendre, quand on déclare qu’une politique est réactionnaire ? Dire que le totalitarisme nazi fut une réaction au totalitarisme communiste, n’est-ce pas l’excuser ? Le mot « réaction » et ses dérivés offrent leurs companies pour l’explication causale comme pour l. a. compréhension par sympathie. Ils nous viennent à l’esprit quand nous cherchons des réponses à nos problèmes. Or ces mots, précisément, ne font-ils pas problème ?C’est l’occasion pour, Jean Starobinski, d’examiner les filières intellectuelles à travers lesquelles le mot « réaction » et ses dérivés nous sont parvenus. Ce livre remonte au rôle que leur attribua l. a. scolastique, mais aboutit aux interrogations qui entourent aujourd’hui los angeles thought de progrès, sans laquelle l. a. réaction politique ne peut être pensée. Il convoque aussi bien les philosophes (Aristote, Leibniz, Kant, Nietzsche, Jaspers), que les savants (Newton, Bichat, Claude, Bernard, Bernheim, Freud) et les écrivains (Diderot, Benjamin consistent, Balzac, Poe, Valéry).

L’ouvrage est une traversée originale de los angeles tradition occidentale : il éclaire successivement les fondements de los angeles technological know-how et los angeles protestation des poètes, parcourant ainsi les chemins qui conduisent à nos perplexités présentes.

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Example text

We now know that the official reason given for Bakhtin's arrest in 1929 was his membership in Voskresenie (Resurrection), an organization of intellectuals who sought to synthesize the principles of Christianity and Marxism. However, in the years just after the revolution, he opposed Bolshevik speakers in public debate on several issues of the day. Yet, in some of the books published under his own name (such as his Dostoevsky monograph), he invokes Marx at some critical points in his argument. In the books published under the names of Medvedev and Voloshinov, Marxism is not only invoked: claims of strengthening or even expanding the scope of Marxist analysis are made.

He is the author only in the event of the artwork—only as he can be perceived or shown to be a function of the relation between author and hero in the event of a particular reader's reading (co-authoring) of that particular text. There are, of course, relations between the formal elements of the text—deployment of pronouns, the tense and aspect of verbs, discursive style of dialogue—and the time, place, and historically instanced writer involved in the text's first production (which was already a reading), but these are highly mediated and of an extraordinary complexity.

Insofar as this process conforms with psychological laws, it cannot be studied by us directly. We meet with it only to the extent to which it precipitates itself in a work of art. That is, we have to do with the ideal history of this process, its history on the plane of meaning,9 and with the ideal, meaning-related laws governing this history. What the temporal causes of such a process may have been or how it may have proceeded psychologically is entirely a matter of conjecture, but in any case this does not concern aesthetics.

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