By William J. Hardcastle, Janet Mackenzie Beck
Through the international, there are phoneticians who've been stimulated via the instructing, study, and writings of John Laver. Many have labored with him in my view, and lots of the individuals to this e-book are individuals with whom he has had unique hyperlinks or whose involvement represents an appreciation of the breadth of Laver's pursuits. whereas the booklet is intended to be a tribute to John Laver, the subjects were selected to supply an summary of a few key matters in phonetics, with illuminating contributions from one of the most influential teachers within the box. Contributing to this festschrift are William Hardcastle, Janet Mackenzie Beck, Peter Ladefoged, John J. Ohala, F. Gibbon, Anne Cutler, Mirjam Broersma, Helen Fraser, Peter F. MacNeilage, Barbara L. Davis, R. E. Asher, E. L. Keane, G. J. Docherty, P. Foulkes, Janet Fletcher, Catherine Watson, John neighborhood, Ailbhe N? Chasaide, Christer Gobl, John H. Esling, Jimmy G. Harris, and Francis Nolan.
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Extra resources for A Figure of Speech: A Festschrift for John Laver
Articulatory opening is equally not a defining characteristic. A sentence such as We keep money can be said with a strong emphasis on keep with an unusually close or a more open ar ticulation than usual of the vowel [i]. Stressed syllables can also be produced with different actions of the respiratory system, depend ing on the amount of air in the lungs, as is illustrated later. These are all instances of motor equivalence, different systems being used to produce a goal that cannot be defined in articulatory terms.
The contri bution by Ailbhe Ni Chasaide and Christer Gobi addresses a key question concerning the communicative role of voice quality. Although phonatory quality is known to be a major vehicle for the communication of emotions, moods, and attitudes, there is little empirical data on this important aspect of speech communication. The principal contribution of this chapter is that it provides an initial exploration, through perceptual experimentation, of the mapping of phonatory quality to affect.
However, there is a lack of data giving the mean formant frequencies and the corresponding tongue shapes for a set of speakers of a language with five or seven vowels. We can, however, make the point that vowels are best regarded as being organized in an auditory space rather than an articulatory one by first considering a set of English speakers pro 10 « LADEFOGED ducing different vowels. Fig. 2 shows the mean frequencies of the first two formants of the front vowels in heed, hid, head, had, hod, and the back vowels in hod, hawed, hood, and who 'd for five speakers of American English (Harshman, Ladefoged, & Gold stein, 1977).